Thursday, May 16, 2019

Gender wage gaps Essay

IntroductionEveryone is entitled to the equal w epochs for equal take on. However, wo handss average income has been lower than mens in nearly all occupation and women in Canada be still far behind the mens starting line on prosecute in the labour market. It is one of some parts of sex inequality in Canada, when considering labour market amour in view of gender. I speak protrude that the current measures to settle engage discrimination atomic number 18 not efficient enough to correspond to market income inequality. Thats why I pick out this topic. It is required to think of new alternatives for closing the ranch. So I provide a few ways to figure out gender net income gos.What is the gender wage go against?The gender wage gaps describe the attracting differences between men and women on paid employment in the labour market. It can be measured in many ways, but the round common method is to focus on full beat and full stratum earnings. It is also able to be mea sured the gender wage gap on the basis of periodic wages. The most recent Statistics data of Canada shows that the gender wage gap in Ontario is 28% for full time and full year role players. It meat that when a male worker is to advance $1.00, a female person worker is to earn only 72 cents. When the Pay Equity Act was passed in 1987, the gender wage gap was 36%. It has been reduced gradually over time.The current situationAs a result of women fork over been investing significant time and resources in their education, women now consist of the majority of undergraduate and masters degree in Ontario. 62% of university undergraduate students in Canada ar women. But women still earn little than men in all occupational categories and all educational levels. Although more(prenominal) than women than men go to university or college, they dont always beat up paid better than men who shed the same work. It is curiously embarrassing that the pay gap is graterfor younger generatio ns of women. There is a 39% gap between men and womens earnings in the ages from 35 to 44. Women account for 60% of all minimum wage workers and the women at low wages atomic number 18 presenting all age groups. This is the reason that poverty follows women after their retirement with women age 65. Its over twice as likely as men to be low income.The gender wage gap gets wider when women have children and when they have a part-time job. Women having children earn 12% less than women without children. Womens opportunities for higher wage are limited by the responsibilities of family which they still burden disproportionately. While now the most majority of mothers work in the paid labour force (almost 70% of women having children under five are working), the employment rate of women with children have much lower than men with children. Making less money for their family than men affects significantly them throughout their lives, which could put women and their children at a higher risk of poverty and decrease their income to earn a lifetime and retirement income.The reason of gender wage gapThere are some(prenominal) factors that caused the gender wage gap. According to a report by Dr. Pat Armstrong, the gender wage gap is caused by the following trey features of Canadas labour market, which interact to yield substantially lower wage for women. That is1. The majority of women are segregated from men into different work and different workplaces. In Canada, 67% of women work in traditional occupations such as teaching, nursing, clerical, admin or sales and service jobs in 2009. 2. In general, womens segregated work is paid less than mens work. The higher the concentration of women, the lower the pay. Womens skills and competencies are undervalued because of their association with women, as are sectors and industries such as health care and services in which women predominate.3. Womens lower pay reflects the systemic undervaluation of womens work relative to t hat of men.Functionalistic perspectives of the gender wage gapFunctionalists have the view that inequality is a product of the traditionaldivision in human societies. In the past, men had a tendency to attend to more external tasks such as working for connection or doing government job and women attended to more internal tasks such as those involved in raising child or doing house work. While both kinds of labour are functional and prerequisite for a societys survival, the external tasks which were accomplished by men always have been more highly rewarded than the internal tasks make by women. So in functionalism, it was very natural for men to get higher wage than women.However, gender roles and their accompanying inequalities have changed in industrialized societies. Industrialized society made the traditional division of labor less functional. Even though traditional arrangement remains in force in most societies, the traditional labour of division is no longer meaningful today . That means men and women are the same as the part that comprise the social and men are women moldiness be treated equally if they do the same work. So, I think that it is not appropriate to inform the gender wage gap in functionalistic perspectives any more.Solutions of the gender wage gapThere are three solutions which I want to suggest for solutions of the gender wage gap.1. To support working familiesAlthough female workers have lower wage than men, their role is very important part of this society. As we know from this sentence Women having children earn 12% less than women not having children, it is important to make circumstances to focus on work in workplace. Governments and companies need to create more family-friendly workplaces and workplace policies especially for women with children. Work places need to consider providing parental draw a blank and paid leave for sickness and family care. It is also inevitable to offer high-quality childcare arrangements and encourag e the development of more part-time jobs to pay well and to have good benefits. Not only is such policies good for female workers, but it beneficial to the company that want to hire competent female workers.2. To increase the minimum wagesBecause the majority of 534,000 minimum wage workers in Ontario are women,the increasing of statutory minimum wage is necessary to close the wage gap. Increasing the minimum wage to reflect the rising living costs all year reduces poverty and inequality of income. Ontarios minimum wage has been fixed at $10.25 for three years. The three year fixing brings the effect lowering the income of minimum wage substantially by 7%. So it results in widening the wage gap. To close the wage gap, I think, the best solution is that the minimum wage is to rise as a certain percentage automatically by laws or rules. Even though it is not realistic to determine the specific number because of changing economic conditions every year, it is very effective that the m inimum wage increasing is controlled by rules.3. To need detailed analysis the dataAlthough there are sufficient resources to show that female worker tend to work equal and earn less than men, more detailed analyses are needed to settle underlying causes. Governments need to collect and share particular and secure countrys data from which the respective gender wage gaps of country can be reason and compared. This would make it possible to find out effective ways of dealing with the problem and to identify possible improvements to existing legal frameworks likely to lead to decreasing significantly in the wage gap. net income rift ProgramThe Pay Equity Office started the Wage Gap Program in 2011, designed to regard current compensation data and assess the possibility of gender wage gaps for non-unionized employees in Ontarios clannish sector workplaces. Wage gaps can be caused by a lot of factors, one of which relates to wage equity. The Wage Gap Program enables the Office to mo re precisely direct its efforts for supporting workplaces that appear to have wage equity gaps. At first, the Office conducted the Program by obtaining correction data from employers with over 500 employees. Workplaces with 250 to 499 employees are being examined now and it is expected that by the fall, workplaces with 100 to 249 employees will be contacted.ReferencesGender Wage Gaps and wages Ratios in Ontario. (2012, November 21). Pay pairity Commission Equal Pay For Work Of Equal Value. Retrieved from http//, F. and Kahn, L. (2007, February). The Gender Pay Gap Have Women gone as far as they can? honorary society of Management Perspectives, pp.1-23.Morissette, R., Picot, G., & Lu, Y. (2013). The Evolution of Canadian Wages over the Last Three Decades (No. 2013347e). Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.Adshade, M. (2013, January 22). Do women choose lower pay? The gender wage gap explained. Canadian Busine ss. Retrieved from http//, P. (2008, June). Equal Pay For Work of Equal Value. Expert Report.

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